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"The United States left the WTO" genuine mystery: Yuling WTO misnomer

In mid-1947, the predecessor of the World Trade Organization (WTO) – the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), signed at Geneva。The previous year, US President Trump was born。But for almost the same age with their WTO, Trump was full of dislike。  During the US presidential election in 2016, Trump has said publicly that "WTO a total disaster."。Recently, several US media has burst, Trump several times expressed the hope that the United States withdraw from the WTO。After the message is rumor Trump himself and the US Treasury Mu Nuqin, first reported the incident Axios US Internet media company has released a big move, released a report entitled directly on the site, "US equity mutual tariff the draft text version of the bill "(hereinafter referred to as the" Act ") of。(Recommended reading) inspect the "Act" leaked version can be learned, such as the "Act" really into American law, it will make the government legally Trump openly violate two fundamental principles of the WTO: most favored nation (MFN) principle and bound rates (Boundtariffrates), which means that the government can put aside Trump WTO bilateral negotiations, and set different tariff levels for different countries。  Then White House spokesman Walters (LindsayWalters) response also confirmed that this "bill" does exist, Trump personally ordered the drafting of the "Act"。  What the United States really want to quit WTO?On the one hand, the United States is still using the WTO to pursue their own interests and wishes to promote the reform of WTO: Trade Policy report submitted in February to the US Congress at the White House, the United States still emphasize WTO reform, and with more than 100 pages to discuss the United States in the WTO activities; on the other hand, the moment due to the US obstruction, WTO dispute settlement mechanism appeal mechanism on the verge of paralysis, and the multilateral trading system does not meet the demands of Trump。  China WTO Research Association executive director, a senior fellow at Tsinghua University, China-US Relations Research Center of the First Financial Correspondent Zhou pointed out that the implementation of the WTO is the principle of consensus, which is why Trump often the main cause of the WTO to launch an attack at the moment, "If he could have veto power, I would not want to quit."。  WTO MFN principle and abandon the first WTO tariff bindings predecessor GATT, namely the MFN principle, which is the cornerstone of WTO multilateral trade system, the government hopes Trump also abandoned the first principle。  First Financial Correspondent Zhou said, WTO members from 23 when first established to the current 164 members of so many countries willing to join, mainly due to the "most favored nation up to the present, and therefore no country suffer, so to participate more and more. "。  In simple terms, the MFN principle to give equal treatment to all WTO members, reflecting the non-discrimination principle of the WTO, which means that members generally can not discriminate among trading partners; given to a member of concessions should also be given to other members of the same。  GATT MFN principle among the management of trade in goods in the first, is the second in the "GATS", the article is the fourth in the "Intellectual Property Rights Agreement on Trade-related" in the。Therefore, the MFN applies to all three WTO trade。Its fundamental purpose is to ensure that Parties other than the country can be fair competition on equal terms with other countries enterprises in the domestic market。The principle of non-discrimination is the cornerstone of the WTO is an important means to avoid trade friction and discrimination is an important guarantee to achieve equality of trade between countries。  On the basis of the actual abolition of the MFN principle, the government also hopes to repeal Trump bound rates (Boundtariffrates) principle。The principle of negotiations to establish by GATT / WTO, tariff concessions are listed in the table the countries in。GATT Article 2 shall enforce national implementation of tariff bindings。  Meanwhile, if a WTO member to raise tax rates to levels above constraints, the affected exporting country the right to take retaliatory measures against the value of exports and other importing countries or receive compensation in the form of generally lower on the affected importing country to require the other export countries to reduce tariffs。  He has been involved in China's WTO accession negotiations, Zhou deep feelings in this regard。He pointed out that from 1948?In 1994, including eight GATT multilateral trade negotiations conducted, countries around the world are designed to make substantial tariff reduction, which makes industrial products tariffs in developed countries fell by 40%, from an average of 6。3% to 3.8%, the success of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement was to make a smooth transition to WTO in 1995, also contributed to the WTO can cover 98% of international trade, making the WTO to become one of the world's most important economic pillar。  However, there is an inverse measure of economic globalization Trump's moving, it can not help but recall the US government Hoover era (1929?When the scene – "Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act" of 1933) promulgated。Zhou said that international trade is an important economic stimulating measures, there is no economic globalization, how can today's prosperity。  Fortunately, the "Act" only in the bud。According to US media reports, in late May this year, when the draft briefing Trump listen to the "Act", in addition to the White House trade consultant Navarro (PeterNavarro), most officials believe the "Act" unrealistic and can not be implemented。The US Commerce Department, the White House chief of staff and relevant staff are aware of the US trade office there is the "Act" of。  White House legal director Shute (MarcShort) bluntly told Navarro, "bill", "out on the dead," and will not get any support in the US Congress。  Navarro then responded, "bill" will be fully supported, especially Democrats。Shute then fired back, he did not think Democrats would be interested to put more power to Trump。  According to reports, a person familiar with the "Act" states that "the" Act "is equivalent to withdrawal from the WTO and to withdraw our commitments, but we do not really inform the other dismissed。But the good news is that Congress never take that power vested in the President's。"The source said the" draft bill "is 'crazy'。  First Financial Correspondent Zhou said that in the US political system, in general, the right to trade in the hands of Congress, the president is usually in charge of foreign。In such matters, the US Congress set to play a role in the separation of powers to。  Trump despise the program overhead WTO WTO issue is not groundless。According to US media reports, Trump often complain to the people around, WTO is to get out of the rest of the world, for the whole of the United States。  Anonymous sources, the number of threats Trump quit the WTO have to have 100 times the。But in a public statement, Trump said he had not asked to leave the WTO, just think of the United States unfair WTO。  Walters said that President for the current global frustrated unfair tariffs against the United States, this really is not a secret。He asked his team to find ways to improve the situation, in order to encourage other countries to reduce tariffs, because "the current system is no negotiating capital for the United States, there is no negotiating power to other countries."。  Although it must be pointed out that the WTO is the United States single-handedly established after World War II。Zhou said that after World War II, to stabilize the world situation, to avoid the Hoover era government appears – like "Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act" political chaos and economic depression in the United Nations set up global politics, in the economy is set up three agencies: the World bank, GATT, the predecessor of international organizations (IMF) and the World Trade organization, three agencies were aimed at poverty alleviation, reduction of tariff and emergency。  Can even say, WTO / GATT rules given year are American。Zhou said the draft statute of the year, with the majority of Americans。  However, the WTO with other international bodies difference lies in the principle of consensus in the WTO。  In the above-mentioned international organization, the United States has veto power, in addition to WTO。First Financial Zhou said bilateral talks more in line with Trump "America First" idea, make the United States in bilateral negotiations can take full advantage of, but the behavior in the 21st century is undoubtedly an anti-economic globalization countercurrent。  "If the impact withdraw the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), etc. arising out of acts or partial, then quit as Trump WTO, the WTO overhead, the impact of this behavior on the world economy would be incalculable。"Zhou said。  At least from the program, the United States has to move overhead WTO。  CBN reporter from a trade official in Geneva was informed that regard, a recent WTO dispute resolution meeting held in Geneva on Mexico once again on behalf of 66 WTO members called "open selection process for members of the WTO Appellate Body as soon as possible" in order to fill the current big three judicial vacancies, and requested that the list of candidates within 30 days, starting the selection process recommended by the Commission within 60 days。However, the United States again rejected the above proposal, saying the WTO dispute settlement mechanism does not solve the many problems in the United States had proposed, so the United States can not change its position。  Standing by seven judges of the Appellate Body under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, since the United States obstruct open a new judge selection process, now officially remaining four judges of the Appellate Body。According to regulations, the Appellate Body to treat each case requires at least three judges。Even with 4?5 official judges, in practical work, also because of legality, it is difficult to deal with cases。  First Financial correspondent was informed by a judge Swanson (Servansing) term in the upcoming year ended September 30, currently being Bhatia for his second term appointments and running, if Swanson is not re-elected, then from In October this year, the appellate Body leaves us with only three regular judges。If the appeal judges will not enough, then the parties will not be able to realize the appeal。The most important WTO arbitration system will be paralyzed in name only。